Hemoglobin, also known as HGB, is a protein found in the red blood cells in your body. It is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and organs. Hemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules (globulin chains) bound together.

What does Hemoglobin do?

Hemoglobin has a unique ability to bind to oxygen, allowing the red blood cells to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and organs. This process is essential for the survival of cells and the maintenance of the body’s overall health.

How is Hemoglobin Measured?

Hemoglobin levels are typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. The normal range for adult men is between 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter (g/dL), while the normal range for adult women is between 12.0 to 15.5 g/dL.

Low Hemoglobin Levels (Anemia)

If a person has a low hemoglobin level, it means they have a condition known as anemia. Anemia can be caused by a number of factors, including a lack of iron in the diet, heavy menstrual bleeding, and certain medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease or cancer. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.

High Hemoglobin Levels

In some cases, a person may have a high hemoglobin level, which is known as polycythemia. This can be caused by living at high altitudes, smoking, or certain medical conditions such as heart disease or lung disease. High hemoglobin levels can increase the risk of blood clots and stroke.

It is important to regularly monitor hemoglobin levels and address any abnormalities with the help of a healthcare provider.


  • Hemoglobin (HGB)
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Oxygen Transport
  • Globulin Chains
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Polycythemia
  • High Altitudes
  • Smoking
  • Heart Disease
  • Lung Disease
  • Blood Clots
  • Stroke


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