What Causes Tooth Fractures? A Comprehensive Guide

Tooth fractures can be a painful and concerning issue for many people. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, biting down on hard objects, and tooth decay. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatments for tooth fractures.

Causes of Tooth Fractures

There are several factors that can contribute to tooth fractures, including:

  • Trauma or injury to the mouth
  • Biting down on hard objects, such as ice or hard candy
  • Tooth decay or cavities
  • Grinding or clenching of the teeth (bruxism)
  • Old fillings or dental work that is worn or damaged

Symptoms of Tooth Fractures

The symptoms of a tooth fracture can vary depending on the extent of the damage, but common symptoms include:

  • Pain or discomfort when biting or chewing
  • Sharp or shooting pain when eating or drinking hot or cold foods
  • Visible cracks or chips in the tooth
  • Sensitivity to temperature changes
  • Swollen gums near the affected tooth

Diagnosis of Tooth Fractures

If you suspect you have a tooth fracture, it is important to see a dentist for a proper diagnosis. They will perform a physical exam and take X-rays to assess the extent of the damage. In some cases, a CT scan may also be performed to get a more detailed view of the tooth and surrounding structures.

Treatments for Tooth Fractures

The treatment plan for a tooth fracture will depend on the extent of the damage and the underlying cause of the fracture. Common treatments include:

  • Dental bonding
  • Dental crowns
  • Root canal therapy
  • Tooth extraction

Dental Bonding: If the fracture is minor and does not affect the
structure of the tooth, dental bonding may be used to repair the damage. During this procedure, a tooth-colored resin material is applied to the affected tooth and shaped to match the surrounding teeth. The resin is then hardened using a special light, and the tooth is polished to give it a natural appearance.

Dental Crowns: If the fracture is more extensive or affects the structure of the tooth, a dental crown may be necessary. A dental crown is a cap that is placed over the affected tooth to protect it and restore its appearance and function. The crown is typically made of porcelain or ceramic material and is custom-made to match the color of your natural teeth.

Root Canal Therapy: If the fracture extends into the root of the tooth, root canal therapy may be necessary to save the tooth. During this procedure, the dentist removes the damaged or infected tissue inside the tooth and seals the root to prevent further damage. A dental crown is then placed over the tooth to protect it and restore its function.

Tooth Extraction: In severe cases, if the fracture is too extensive or the tooth is too damaged to be saved, extraction may be necessary. This is typically a last resort, as it can lead to further problems such as jawbone loss and shifting of surrounding teeth. However, if extraction is necessary, the dentist can discuss replacement options with you, such as dental implants or a dental bridge.

Prevention of Tooth Fractures

To prevent tooth fractures, it is important to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly. Avoiding hard or crunchy foods, such as ice or hard candy, can also help reduce the risk of tooth fractures. If you grind or clench your teeth, wearing a mouthguard at night can help protect your teeth and reduce the pressure on your jaw muscles. In addition, seeing a dentist for regular check-ups and seeking treatment for any dental issues can help prevent tooth fractures from developing or worsening.


Tooth fractures can be a painful and concerning issue, but with proper treatment, it is possible to restore the appearance and function of your affected tooth. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for tooth fractures, you can take steps to prevent them and maintain a healthy, pain-free smile. If you suspect you have a tooth fracture, be sure to see a dentist for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

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